Frederick the Wise (1463– 1525), Elector of Saxony, was the leading cultural figure among the German princes of the early 16th century. He showed a special interest in architecture, but only little remains of his ambitious building projects except for Colditz Castle (rebuilt 1519 – 1525). This paper explores his active role as patron at Colditz focussing on the palace’s spatial structure and interior. Putting the Elector’s ideas into practice, the Saxon court painter Lucas Cranach the Elder was in charge of a uniform design which reflected humanist approaches to classical antiquity and different Renaissance styles. Following the model of Emperor Maximilian I, Frederick the Wise realised a sophisticated architectural concept at his residences that suited his noble status and ceremonial needs.